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Basic information

 

Why is it necessary to keep personal details up to date in the Population Information System also when living abroad? Does the country of residence matter?

Information about the address and personal circumstances of Finnish nationals residing abroad only stay up to date if they report any changes in such information to the authorities in Finland. Notifications can be sent to the Jakobstad Unit of the Local Register Office of West Finland, PO box 26, FI-68601 Jakobstad, or to the local register office of the municipality of most recent residence or to the nearest Finnish Embassy or Consulate in the current country of residence. Information to be notified includes current address, marriage and divorce, and birth of children. Current information in the Population Information System expedites, for example, the issuance of Finnish passports.

Many rights and responsibilities are determined on the basis of information in the Population Information System. For example, the voting register is based on this information. If the address in the Population Information System is incorrect, documents posted by the authorities (notification of right to vote, matters related to conscription) may not reach the recipient.

The Population Information System is the most important basic register in our society, and the correctness of its data is highly important to many authorities. For example, the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela) requires comprehensive personal history in order to prepare its decisions, particularly in matters involving pensions.

Finnish nationals residing in Norway, Denmark or Iceland must personally notify authorities of changes in their personal information. In this case, it is sufficient to send an extract from the population register of the country of residence in which the changed information appears to an Embassy or Consulate.

Changes in personal information are forwarded from Sweden through official channels to the Population Information System of Finland under an agreement between Finland and Sweden. However, when a person has dual citizenship of both countries, Sweden considers the person as Swedish and does not forward the information to Finland. Persons with such dual citizenship must personally notify authorities in Finland of changes in their personal data.

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Moving abroad

Finnish nationals may move abroad either temporarily or permanently.

A person that has moved abroad for a period exceeding one year, has no municipality of residence in Finland.

However, they may have a municipality of residence in Finland if, based on their circumstances, they have closer ties to Finland than to their foreign country of residence.

Such closer ties to Finland may include, for example, family members and relations in Finland, circumstances related to real estate and dwellings as well as circumstances related to employment and livelihood. Depending on circumstances, a person may retain their municipality of residence in Finland when they are abroad for a period exceeding one year due to care in a hospital, temporary work, studies or holidays, and return to Finland immediately after completion thereof.

However, the municipality of residence can no longer be considered to be in Finland once the person has resided abroad continuously in excess of three years.

If the move is temporary, the person remains registered in the Population Information System among the permanent population. The municipality of the person’s most recent residence in Finland remains their municipality of residence and the rights and obligations relating to residence remain unchanged.

Notification of a move must be given in writing no later than one week after the move. Notification must also be made when temporary residence lasts over three months. Notification of a move abroad or back to Finland must be submitted either at www.muuttoilmoitus.fi or with the relevant form. The Notification of Change of Address form is available at local register offices and post offices.

If the move abroad is permanent, i.e. the person will remain permanently resident abroad, he or she is entered in the absentee population in the Population Information System. The most recent municipality of residence is the municipality from which the move abroad took place. Certain rights and obligations relating to municipality of residence are severed when moving abroad, such as the right to vote in municipal elections and other municipal rights tied to municipality of residence.

When Finnish citizens move abroad, they have different rights and obligations with regard to different types of matters. It is therefore important that persons moving abroad contact authorities such as the tax authorities and Kela before their move to determine how the move affects them with regard to the various authorities, and to determine their obligations to notify the authorities. The websites of authorities contain useful information, including contact information and email addresses.

It is important that Finnish citizens residing abroad notify authorities about their new address abroad. See Change of address abroad

For more information about how a move abroad affects social security, pension and taxation, see the brochure published by the Finnish Centre for Pensions (in Finnish):

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Marriage

In order for information on marriage to be entered in the Population Information System in Finland, the original marriage certificate duly legalised in the country of residence or a certified copy thereof must be submitted to the nearest Finnish Embassy or Consulate (formin.finland.fi/english) or sent to the Jakobstad Unit of the Local Register Office of West Finland, PO box 26, FI-68601 Jakobstad, or to the local register office of the municipality where the person was most recently resident in Finland. Since marriage certificates are usually drafted in the language of the issuing country, they must be translated into Finnish or Swedish (or English) by an authorized translator. If the translation is carried out abroad then the translation must also be legalised. In Finland, a translation by an authorized translator is accepted as is.

The form “Notification of marriage of a Finnish citizen outside Finland” should be appended to the original certificate. The form is available at Embassies and Consulates. Alternatively, you can print the form from this site or from the suomi.fi service. Embassies will forward the documents to Finland through official channels.

If a person’s surname has changed through marriage and the marriage certificate is sent directly to the local register office, the form “Sukunimen ilmoituslomake” (available in Finnish only) should be appended to the certificate. You can find it in the Finnish section on forms (“Lomakkeet”).

Registration of civil partnership abroad

The form for notification of a partnership registered abroad can be found at suomi.fi. For more information, see the section on Marriage.

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Birth of child

In order for the birth of a child to be entered in the Population Information System in Finland, the original birth certificate duly legalised in the country of residence or a certified copy thereof must be submitted to the nearest Finnish Embassy or Consulate (formin.finland.fi/english) or sent to the Jakobstad Unit of the Local Register Office of West Finland, PO box 26, FI-68601 Jakobstad , or to the local register office of the municipality where the mother was most recently resident in Finland.

Since birth certificates are usually drafted in the language of the issuing country (English is accepted), they must be translated into Finnish, Swedish or English by an authorized translator. If the translation is carried out abroad then the translation must also be legalised. In Finland, a translation by an authorized translator is accepted as is. To register the birth, information about the parents as well as their contact details must also be provided to the local register office.

The form “Notification of a Finnish citizen born outside Finland” should be appended to the original certificate. The form is available at local register offices, from this section of the site or from suomi.fi. Embassies will forward the documents to Finland through official channels. Names of both parents are usually mentioned in the birth certificate. If the parents are married at the time of birth, the child is automatically considered to be born in wedlock.

If the parents of the child are not married, the paternity of the child must be confirmed before paternity can be registered in Finland.

If only the child’s father is a citizen of Finland and the father is not married to the mother at the time of birth, the child will not automatically receive Finnish citizenship even after the paternity has been confirmed and registered. The child will obtain Finnish citizenship by declaration with the form KAN 4, which can be submitted to the local police in Finland, or to the nearest Finnish Embassy or Consulate in the country of residence. To download the form, go to the website of the Finnish Immigration Service at http://www.migri.fi/frontpage. You can also make the citizenship declaration electronically.

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Recognition of a foreign paternity decision

Under Section 51 of the Paternity Act, a decision on paternity issued in a foreign state can be recognised in Finland without separate verification if the decision is valid in the issuing state. In such cases, acknowledgement and establishment of paternity in Finland is not required.

Decision on paternity

Decision on paternity refers to a decision by a court of law or other authority and the confirmation or registration of a legal act that establishes the relation between the child and man as one of paternity in the state in which the registration or other act took place. Documents (e.g. birth certificate) in which the identity of the father is based solely on the notification of the interested parties do not constitute such a decision. Where necessary, the interested parties are required to submit an account of the legislation of the state in question indicating that the document is sufficient proof in that state for establishing paternity and the obligation to provide maintenance. It is further required that the interested parties have been resident or domiciled in the state in question or citizens of that state.

Provided that the requirements are met, the competent local register office enters the information on paternity in the Population Information System on the basis of the decision issued in a foreign state. The decision needs to be duly legalised and presented in the original or as an officially certified copy. A Finnish, Swedish or English translation of the decision is also required.
Where necessary, the Helsinki District Court may confirm, by application, whether a decision on paternity issued in a foreign state is recognised in Finland.

See also Finns residing abroad obligated to update personal data

Recognition of a foreign paternity decision

Custody decisions (the attribution, exercise, delegation, restriction or termination of parental responsibility) issued in the EU as of 1 March 2001 are valid in Finland as is, if they have been certified in accordance with the provisions of EU Regulations. The court or authority issuing the judgement issues the certificate, which does not need to be translated. Other judgements on parental responsibility must be original documents that have been legalised and officially translated in the country of residence.

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Divorce

Divorce decrees granted within the EU after 1 March 2001 are valid as such in Finland if a certificate as required by EU legislation indicating the validity of the divorce accompanies the documents. This certificate is available from the authority that issued the divorce decree and does not need to be translated.

Other divorce decrees need to be duly legalised and presented in the original or as copies officially certified in the issuing country. A Finnish, Swedish or English translation of the decree is also required. If the translation is carried out abroad then the translation must also be legalised. In Finland, a translation by an authorised translator is accepted as is.

Such a divorce decree may be submitted to Finnish Embassies and Consulates for forwarding to Finland, or sent to the Jakobstad Unit of the Local Register Office of West Finland, P.O. Box 26, FI-68601 Jakobstad, or submitted to the local register office of the municipality of the most recent residence in Finland. 

When necessary, an application for confirmation on whether or not a divorce decree is recognised can be filed at the Helsinki District Court, which can confirm, by application, whether a decision issued in a foreign state is recognised in Finland. This decision is legally binding to all parties. Please contact the Helsinki District Court for further information. Divorce decrees requiring confirmation cannot be submitted to Embassies or Consulates for forwarding to the relevant authorities; the party involved must submit the decree and related documents to the Helsinki District Court.

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Name change

In order for a change of name (excluding name changes by virtue of marriage) to be entered in the Population Information System in Finland, the original document of change of name duly legalised in the country of residence or a certified copy thereof must be submitted to the nearest Finnish Embassy or Consulate (formin.finland.fi/english) or sent to the Jakobstad Unit of the Local Register Office of West Finland, PO box 26, FI-68601 Jakobstad, or to the local register office of the municipality where the person was most recently resident in Finland. Since these documents are usually drafted in the language of the issuing country, they must be translated into Finnish or Swedish by an authorized translator. (English is also accepted.) If the translation is carried out abroad then the translation must also be legalised. In Finland, a translation by an authorized translator is accepted as is.

Finnish nationals domiciled in a nation other than Finland, Denmark, Norway or Sweden are entitled to request that Finnish law apply to the determination of surname. Forms relating to change of name are available in the Forms section (in Finnish only) and may be submitted to an Embassy or Consulate or the local register office of the municipality of most recent residence in Finland.

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Change of nationality

In order for citizenships of countries other than Finland to be entered in the Population Information System in Finland, the original decision about nationality duly legalised in the country of residence or a certified copy thereof must be submitted to the nearest Finnish Embassy or Consulate (formin.finland.fi/english) or sent to the Jakobstad Unit of the Local Register Office of West Finland, PO box 26, FI-68601 Jakobstad, or to the local register office of the municipality where the person was most recently resident in Finland. Since these documents are usually drafted in the language of the issuing country, they must be translated into Finnish or Swedish by an authorized translator. (English is also accepted.) If the translation is carried out abroad then the translation must also be legalised. In Finland, a translation by an authorized translator is accepted as is.

For more information about dual citizenship, please see the website of the Finnish Immigration Service (http://www.migri.fi/frontpage). Citizenship of a country other than Finland must also be registered in the Population Information System. Finland accepts dual citizenship, and it is a consideration in matters such as those relating to conscription. Further information: http://www.puolustusvoimat.fi/en/.

Retaining Finnish citizenship at the age of 18–22

If you are a citizen of both Finland and another state, you may lose your Finnish citizenship at the age of 22. This page contains information on how you may retain your Finnish citizenship and what you should do to retain it. Further information:

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Death certificate

In order for a death to be registered in the Population Information System in Finland, an original death certificate duly legalised in the country of residence or a certified copy thereof must be submitted to the nearest Finnish Embassy or Consulate (formin.finland.fi/english) or sent to the Jakobstad Unit of the Local Register Office of West Finland, PO box 26, FI-68601 Jakobstad, or to the local register office of the municipality where the person was most recently resident in Finland. Since death certificates are usually drafted in the language of the issuing country, they must be translated into Finnish or Swedish by an authorized translator. (English is also accepted.) If the translation is carried out abroad then the translation must also be legalised.

The form “Notification of a Finnish citizen deceased outside Finland” should be appended to the original certificate. The form is available at Finnish Embassies and Consulates or you can print it from this section of the site or from suomi.fi. Embassies will forward the documents to Finland through official channels.

Death certificates must be issued by a physician qualified under the laws of the relevant nation to issue such certificates. The party authenticating the certificate is responsible for the death certificate having been issued according to relevant legislation.

If the body is repatriated to Finland in a coffin, a Finnish forensic pathologist writes the death certificate. In this case, the death is automatically registered in the Population Register System of Finland.

The local registry office must also be notified of the death of a spouse in order to register that the marriage has ended.

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Change of address abroad

Finnish nationals residing abroad should also keep their address information up to date. Notifications can be sent directly or to the Jakobstad Unit of the Local Register Office of West Finland, PO box 26, FI-68601 Jakobstad, or to the local register office of the municipality of most recent residence or to the Finnish Embassy or Consulate in the current country of residence. It is also possible to submit the notification by email: address@maistraatti.fi.

Up-to-date information about addresses ensures that information can be delivered to Finnish citizens on their right to vote in parliamentary, presidential and EU elections. They may also be notified about matters relating to conscription. A current address also guarantees persons can be easily and quickly located in important matters involving them. You can find the form in the Finnish section on forms and at the suomi.fi website where it can also be completed electronically (please note that the use of the e-services requires user identification).

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Legalization - Apostille Certificate

In order for a document issued abroad by a foreign authority, except authorities in the Nordic countries or Estonia (see the section on Estonia), to have the intended legal effect in Finland, it must be legalised.

The legalisation of a document is a measure relating to the client’s legal protection, ensuring that the party issuing the certificate is entitled to do so under the laws of the issuing country and that the issued document contains the appropriate information and is valid in the country where it has been issued. For example with regard to marriage certificates, it is important that the officiating party is entitled to marry couples under the legislation of the country where the marriage has taken place.

Legalisation takes place by two different means depending on whether the relevant country is a signatory to the Hague Convention of 1961. Documents supplied by countries that have ratified the Hague Convention are legalised by the issuance of an Apostille Certificate (stamp or paper certificate). Documents issued by other countries are legalised through the Grand Legalisation procedure.

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Apostille

The Apostille Certificate (stamp or paper certificate) is necessary if the document has been issued by the authorities of a country that has ratified the Hague Convention of 1961. Information on the Hague Convention as well as an English language list of its member states can be found here:

It also provides information about the authorities issuing Apostille Certificates in the various countries.

If you need an Apostille Certificate for a Finnish document, go to your local register office.

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Grand Legalisation

If the country issuing a document is not a signatory of the Hague Convention, a document is legalised by the foreign ministry of the issuing country, certifying it has been issued by the proper authority, after which a competent Finnish Embassy or Consulate of that country legalises the document by attaching a certificate of the competence of that foreign ministry official to issue such certificates.

Additionally, the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs may be requested to certify the competence of the Embassy or Consulate official to issue such certificates.

Documents issued in Finland are legalised by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. Further information: Legalisation of documents for use abroad

Translations

Since these documents are usually drafted in the language of the issuing country, they must be translated into Finnish or Swedish (English is also accepted) by an authorized translator. The translation must also be legalised. Local register offices may decide not to require legalised translations.

It is always possible to have an authorised translator translate the document in Finland.

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Finns residing abroad obligated to update personal data

Finns residing abroad are obligated to update their personal data by notifying any changes thereto to the Population Information System, maintained by the Finnish local register offices.

The Finnish Act on the Population Information System and the certificate services of the Population Register Centre (661/2009) obligates Finnish citizens residing abroad to notify the Population Information System immediately of any changes to their personal data occurring during their residence abroad, such as births of children, marriages, divorces and changes of names.

The document on which the notification to the Population Information System is based can be sent to the Jakobstad Unit of the Local Register Office of West Finland, PO box 26, FI-68601 Jakobstad, or to the local register office of the municipality of most recent residence or to the nearest Finnish Embassy or Consulate in the current country of residence. The foreign document must be the original or a legalised copy thereof. Moreover, the document must be translated into Finnish, Swedish or English. Both the original document and translation thereof must be legalised.

Finnish citizen residing in Sweden

The obligation specified above does not apply to Finnish citizens residing in Sweden, because the provision of their data are subject to procedures agreed separately between the Finnish and Swedish population register authorities.

A citizen of both Finland and Sweden

NB. This does not apply to Finnish citizens who are also citizens of Sweden. They are obliged to notify authorities of any changes to their personal information. For example, if a mother is a Finnish citizen when the children are born, but the children are citizens of both Finland and Sweden, it is the responsibility of the parents to notify the Population Information System of the birth of the children. Regardless of whether you are a Finnish citizen or a citizen of both Finland and Sweden, we recommend checking that your information is up to date at the local registry office before acquiring a passport.

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When must you notify authorities about your return to Finland?

An increasing number of Finns spend the winter in warm climates, either in southern Europe or even further afield. From time to time the question has arisen of whether returns such as this need to be notified to the authorities. The general rule is that if you are holidaying for only a few months in Finland, it is not necessary to submit a change of address notification to the local register office.

A change of address notification must be submitted to the local register office if the move to Finland is permanent or temporary, i.e., residence at the new address is longer than three months (does not therefore mean holidaying as referred to above). If you already know when coming to Finland that you will live here for less than a year and will then be moving abroad again, your move is temporary. In this case, you will not be given a municipality of residence in Finland, but a temporary address will be entered in the Population Information System for you. A move is regarded as temporary also when the duration of stay may be at least a year, but the main reason for coming to Finland is, for example, the performance of military service without an intention to remain in the country permanently.

If you intend to reside in Finland for at least a year, the move should be notified to the local register office as permanent, in which case you will be given a municipality of residence and the benefits it provides to residents. If a residence that was intended as temporary becomes permanent, this must also be notified to the local register office.

NB. If you are moving from other Nordic countries, you must visit the local register office in person.

You may, if necessary, also inform the local register office of a postal address differing from your residential address.

When living abroad, you should inform the local register office or Finnish Embassy or Consulate of your residential address and changes thereof for the Population Information System. An up-to-date address abroad ensures that information on your right to vote in Finnish general elections and EU elections can be delivered to you. In addition, Finnish authorities can reach you as quickly as possible, if necessary. Further information:
Change of address abroad. Instructions for submitting a change of address notification and notifying of an address abroad are available at www.vrk.fi --> Notification of move

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The Finnish tax authorities obtain information on permanent changes of address from the local register offices. You must, however, notify your local tax office of a temporary change of address if you live in Finland for more than six months, because that makes you liable for taxes in Finland. You must also remember to notify the tax office when the address is no longer valid.

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Kela-administered residence-based social security

Your entitlement to Finnish residence-based social security is determined mainly by reference to the length of your stay in Finland. The criteria under which a move is regarded as permanent or temporary from a social security standpoint are not always the same as the decision on the municipality of residence made by the local register office under the Municipality of Residence Act. Entitlement to residence-based social security is based on the Act on the Implementation of the Social Security Legislation and decisions pursuant to this Act are made by the National Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela).

If you intend to move to Finland permanently, you will normally be covered by the Finnish social security system and will qualify for Kela benefits, which include, among others, medical treatment and reimbursement of medicine expenses, as soon as you move to Finland. The following are regarded as indications of a permanent move to Finland: return migration to Finland, employment in Finland lasting at least two years, and a marriage or other close familial relationship with a person permanently residing in Finland. In addition to other circumstances, whether you are deemed to have a municipality of residence in Finland pursuant to the Municipality of Residence Act is taken into account when assessing the permanence of a move to Finland.

Persons moving to Finland on a permanent basis must apply for coverage under the Finnish social security system with the Kela form Y77. Successful applicants will be given a written decision and issued a personal Kela card. You can check whether you are covered by the Finnish social security system through Kela’s online services.

If you move to Finland temporarily, you will typically not be entitled to social security benefits from Kela. For example, students moving to Finland for the sole purpose of studying are considered to be resident in Finland only temporarily.

Regardless of whether you are deemed to be moving to Finland permanently, you may be entitled to social security in Finland on the basis of your employment.

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Accessibility to public health care services in Finland

Treatment that is urgent or necessary during your stay in Finland

If you need urgent medical attention in Finland, you are entitled to the services of the public health care system. If you do not have a municipality of residence in Finland or the right to treatment in the public health care system under EU legislation or other international social security agreement, a fee equivalent to treatment costs incurred will be charged as a user fee.

Entitlement to medical treatment in the public health care system is proved by presenting a European Health Insurance Card or a certificate of entitlement to healthcare benefits in Finland issued by Kela.

The European Health Insurance Card entitles you to medically necessary treatment in the public health care system during your stay in Finland. You will be charged the same user fee as charged to permanent residents in Finland. Persons covered by the Nordic Convention on social security and the Australian agreement on medical treatment prove their entitlement to medical treatment with an official identity card or a passport and by providing their home address.

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Seeking treatment in Finland

If you live permanently in another EU or EEA country or Switzerland and you wish to seek medical treatment from Finland’s public health care system, you must apply for prior authorisation to obtain this treatment from your country of residence. The body granting the prior authorisation is liable for the costs of your treatment. Prior authorisation is granted on a E112 or an S2 form.

Before seeking treatment, you must identify the hospital district or health centre where you are seeking treatment. You should note that the public health care system has the right to refuse to accept you as a patient, even if you have a prior authorisation for treatment. It is recommended that you contact your preferred place of treatment before coming to Finland. Medical treatment is always carried out in accordance with the treatment practice accepted in Finland. Under the prior authorisation, you pay the same user fees as a person with a municipality of residence in Finland.

You may also seek treatment in Finland without a prior authorisation. You are always entitled to use private health care services in Finland. If you wish to receive treatment in the Finnish public health care system without prior authorisation, please contact the desired place of treatment yourself in good time beforehand. The hospital district or health centre can provide a preliminary cost estimate, which will become more accurate after you have been examined. The hospital district or health centre may also request an advance. Treatment is always carried out in accordance with the treatment practice accepted in Finland.

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Population register documents from Estonia

Under an agreement that came into force on 1 July 2012, population register documents issued in Estonia in the English language no longer need to be legalised for Finnish authorities, nor do equivalent documents issued in Finland need to be legalised for Estonian authorities − i.e. an Apostille is no longer required.

The agreement applies to the following documents issued in Estonia:

  • Birth certificate - extract
  • Death certificate - extract
  • Marriage certificate - extract
  • Divorce certificate - extract
  • Marriage non-impediment - extract
  • Change of name certificate - extract
  • Population register - extract

Only Estonia’s county governments are able to provide all of the above-mentioned documents in English. Population register extracts can be provided in English also by authorities in the municipalities, the towns and, in some cases, in the districts.

The agreement does not apply to documents issued by Estonian embassies.

The agreement applies to the following documents issued in Finland:

  • Extract from the Population Information System in Finland, which can be obtained from a local register office
  • Official certificate issued by the parishes and central registers of the Evangelical Lutheran Church or by the central register of the Orthodox Church, or other certificate based on their member register systems
  • Certificate on the capacity under Finnish law to contract marriage before a foreign authority, which can be obtained from a local register office, parish or central register

An Apostille is still required for documents outside the scope of application of the agreement.

Checking the validity of non-legalised documents

Under the agreement, the authorities in each of the respective countries may check the validity of a document issued in the other Contracting State if there is reason to doubt that it is valid.

In situations such as this, the Estonian authority submits a request for verification of a document issued in Finland to the Population Register Centre. Correspondingly, the Finnish authority submits a request for verification of a document issued in Estonia to the Estonian Ministry of the Interior.

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Where can I get an extract from the Population Information System or a certificate of the examination of the impediments to marriage?

It is possible to order an extract from the Population Information System or a certificate of the examination of the impediments to marriage to a foreign address. You can also inform the local register office if you need an Apostille to be attached. The order form is available at both the maistraatti.fi and suomi.fi websites. It is available in Finnish, Swedish and English. Alternatively, you can submit your order to the Jakobstad Unit of the Local Register Office of West Finland, PO box 26, FI-68601 Jakobstad.

If you need an extract from the Population Information System in French, German, Italian or Spanish, order it from the Local Register Office of Uusimaa, Helsinki unit, PO box 309, FI-00181 Helsinki. The order form is available at both the maistraatti.fi and suomi.fi websites (the form is the same as in the previous paragraph).

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Who is eligible for a Finnish personal identification code?

More information about eligibility and obtaining a Finnish personal identification code:

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Check your registered data

The link below takes you to a service (available in Finnish) where you can check your personal details as recorded in the Population Information System. You can check your existing personal details, your name history and registered real estate and buildings. You can also check your address history. Other historical data can be checked at the local registry office.

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Legislation on matters related to the population register

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